sábado, 19 de enero de 2019



Relative clauses add extra information to a sentence by defining a noun. They are usually divided into two types – defining relative clauses and non-defining relative clauses.

Defining relative clauses

We use defining relative clauses to give essential information about someone or something – information that we need in order to understand what or who is being referred to. A defining relative clause usually comes immediately after the noun it describes.
We usually use a relative pronoun (e.g. who, that, which, whose and whom) to introduce a defining relative clause (In the examples, the relative clause is in bold, and the person or thing being referred to is underlined.):
They’re the people who/that want to buy our house.
Here are some cells which/that have been affected.
They should give the money to somebody who/that they think needs the treatment most.
The actress now playing a woman whose son was killed in the First World War.
         This is the town where I studied my university degree.

         The day when/that the concert takes place is Saturday.
         This is the reason why I didn't invite him to the party.


We often leave out the relative pronoun when it is the object of the verb:
They’re the people she met at Jon’s party.
Here are some cells the researcher has identified.
The relative pronoun cannot be omitted when it it the subject of the verb:

            This is the boy who/that helped us with our luggage.  

            This is the boy who/that we meet at the party.


Non-defining relative clauses

Look at this sentence.
  • My grandfather, who is 87, goes swimming every day.
‘who is 87’ is a non-defining relative clause. It adds extra information to the sentence. If we take the clause out of the sentence, the sentence still has the same meaning.

Look at some more examples.
  • The film, which stars Tom Carter, is released on Friday.
  • My eldest son, whose work takes him all over the world, is in Hong Kong at the moment.
  • The car, which can reach speeds of over 300km/ph, costs over $500,000.
Non-defining relative clauses add extra information to sentences.

Defining or non-defining?

Remember that defining relative clauses are used to add important information. The sentence would have a different meaning without the defining relative clause.
  • I’m going to wear the skirt that I bought in London. The defining relative clause tells us which skirt.
  • The skirt, which is a lovely dark blue colour, only cost £10. The non-defining relative clause doesn’t tell us which skirt – it gives us more information about the skirt.
Non-defining relative clauses can use most relative pronouns (which, whose etc,) but they CAN’T use ‘that’ and the relative pronoun can never be omitted.
  • The film, that stars Tom Carter, is released on Friday.
  • The film, which stars Tom Carter, is released on Friday
Non-defining relative clauses are more often used in written English than in spoken English. You can tell that a clause is non-defining because it is separated by commas at each end of the clause.

Possessive: WHOSE
Example: He's the man whose car was stolen last week.
They were sure to visit the town whose location (OR the location of which) was little known.





Exercise 1

Choose the right pronoun:
1. It is the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I've just read.
2. She is the girl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sat next to me in the bus.
3. They are the people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . helped me.
4. This is the dog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . scared me.

Build one sentence (containing a defining relative clause) with these two sentences:
5. A robot is a machine. It can replace human workers.
6. A vet is a doctor. He treats animals.
7. Pets are animals. They are kept at home as companions.
8. A robot is a machine. It looks like a human being. 

Exercise 3
Decide whether the following clauses are defining or non-defining clauses. Insert commas where necessary. Omit the relative pronoun when it is possible.
  1. The car which was a rare sports coupe was built in 1966.
  2. We invited the boy who Tom had met the week before to the party.
  3. Our friends who we met at university are coming to visit next week.
  4. That is the building where they shot the film 'Vanilla Sky'.
  5. Mr Jackson whose son also goes to this school will be attending the party next weekend.
  6. The author's latest book which has become a bestseller is about two children in Jamaica.
Exercise 4   Work together to expand the following story by using as many non-defining relative clauses as you can. Feel free to make a funny story!
A man called Peter took an airplane to New York to visit his sister. When he arrived at the airport, a old man asked him a question. Peter gave a short reply and the man invited him for a drink. Peter accepted, and after he had the drink, caught the airplane to New York. When he got to his sister's apartment, his sister invited him into the living room. As he entered the room, he was surprised to see the same man.

Join the following pairs of sentences. There are defining and non-defining
relative sentences.
1. The woman showed me a photograph of her son. Her son is a policeman.
2. The new stadium will be opened next month. The stadium holds
90,000 people.
3. John is one of my closest friends. I have known John for eight years
4. The boy is one of my closest friends. He is waiting for me.
5. Thank you for your letter. I was very happy to get your letter.
6. The letter is in the drawer. Peter has sent the letter to you.
7. Next week-end I’m going to Glasgow. My sister lives in Glasgow.
8. Next summer we are visiting the town. My father was born in this
9. The storm caused a lot of damage. Nobody had been expecting
the storm.
10. That man over there is an artist. I don’t remember his name.
11. Mr Yates is retiring next month. He has worked for the same
company all his life.
12. My sister is visiting us next week. You once met her.
13. Mr Carter is very interested in our plan. I spoke to him last night.
14. I’ve just bought some books about astronomy. I’m very interested
in astronomy.
15. The man is in prison. Janet fell in love with this man.
16. Mr Roberts is in prison. Janet fell in love with him.

DO TESTS 1, 2, 3, 4.

lunes, 17 de diciembre de 2018


There are so many phrasal verbs that it is really difficult to make a list. Here you have some of the most common phrasal verbs, with their meaning and an example.

be about to
be on the point of
I was about to leave when the customer arrived.
be after
want something
What are you after?
blow up
The racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence.
break down
stop functioning (vehicle, machine)
Our car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm.
break into
enter a building by force
Thieves broke into the house and stole several pictures.
break out
A fight broke out in the pub.

break up
end a relationship
My boyfriend and I broke up before I moved to America.
bring someone up
raise a child
My grandparents brought me up after my parents died.
call something off
Jason called the wedding off because he wasn't in love with his fiancé.
catch up
get to the same point as someone else
You'll have to run faster than that if you want to catch up with Marty.
check in / out
arrive and register at a hotel or airport / leave
We will get the hotel keys when we check in.
clean something up
tidy, clean
Please clean up your bedroom before you go outside.
come across something
find unexpectedly
I came across these old photos when I was tidying the closet.
come up with
devise, invent
He came up with a really elaborated plan.
count on someone/something
rely on
I am counting on you to make dinner while I am out.
cut across
Take a short cut
We cut across the park to arrive earlier.
cut down on something
consume less
My doctor wants me to cut down on sweets and fatty foods.
cut in
Interrupt speaking
Don’t cut in when I am talking!
cut out for
be suitable for
Peter decided he wasn’t cut out for being a policeman.
deal with
Handle, manage
He has to deal with the customers.
dress up
wear nice clothing
It's a fancy restaurant so we have to dress up.
drop out
quit a class, school etc
I dropped out of Science because it was too difficult.
fall down
fall to the ground
The picture that you hung up last night fell down this morning.
feel like
have desire for
I don’t feel like going out.
fill something in
to write information in blanks (Br.E.)
Please fill in the form with your name, address, and phone number.
find out
We don't know where he lives. How can we find out?
get something across/over
communicate, make understandable
I tried to get my point across/over to the judge but she wouldn't listen.
get along/on
like each other
I was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on.
get around to
find time
He got around to clean the house last weekend.
get away with something
do without being noticed or punished
Jason always gets away with cheating in his Maths tests.
get back at someone
retaliate, take revenge
My sister got back at me for stealing her shoes. She stole my favourite hat.
get on/off a bus, a train, a ship
board / leave
We got on the bus to go to the city centre.
get over something
recover from an illness, loss, difficulty,
overcome a problem
I just got over the flu and now my sister has it.
The company will have to close if it can't get over the new regulations.
give someone/something away
reveal hidden information about someone
ruin a secret
His wife gave him away to the police.
My little sister gave the surprise party away by accident.
give in
reluctantly stop fighting or arguing
My boyfriend didn't want to go to the ballet, but he finally gave in.
give something up
quit a habit, stop trying
I am giving up smoking as of January 1st.
My maths homework was too difficult so I gave up.
grow out of
When clothing becomes small
My son grows out of his shoes very quickly.

go around
be enough.
"Is there enough cake to go around?

go without something
suffer lack or deprivation
When I was young, we went without winter boots.
go off
Explode / sound / spoil (food)
The bomb went off in a busy store.
My alarm clock didn’t go off and I arrive late.
Milk goes off if it isn’t kept in the fridge.  
grow apart
stop being friends over time
My best friend and I grew apart after she changed schools.
grow up
become an adult
When Jack grows up he wants to be a fireman.
grow out of something
get too big for
Elizabeth needs a new pair of shoes because she has grown out of her old ones.
hand something in
I have to hand in my essay by Friday.
hand something out
to distribute to a group of people
We will hand out the invitations at the door.
hang on
wait a short time (informal)
Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes!
hang out
spend time relaxing (informal)
Instead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place.
haul un
The police hauled in the suspect."

have on
Are you having me on?

hold on
wait a short time
Please hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department.
keep on doing something
continue doing
Keep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil.
Hold up
We were held up by bad weather.

let someone down
fail to support or help, disappoint
I need you to be on time. Don't let me down this time.
let someone in
allow to enter
Can you let the cat in before you go to school?
lighten up
take it less seriously, relax
He should lighten up and not take work so seriously.
live through
Experience, endure
My grandfather lived through the war.
live up to
Be as good as expected
I fear I will never live up to my parents’ expectations.
log in (or on)/out (or off)
sign in/out (to a website, database etc)
I can't log in to Facebook because I've forgotten my password.
If you don't log off somebody could get into your account.
look after someone/something
take care of
I have to look after my sick grandmother.
look down on someone
think less of, consider inferior
Ever since we stole that chocolate bar your dad has looked down on me.
look for someone/something
try to find
I'm looking for a red dress for the wedding.
look forward to something
be excited about the future
I'm looking forward to the Christmas break.
look into something
We are going to look into the price of snowboards today.
look out
be careful, vigilant, and take notice
Look out! That car's going to hit you!
look up to someone
have a lot of respect for
My little sister has always looked up to me.
make something up
invent, lie about something
Josie made up a story about why we were late.
make up
forgive each other
We were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast.
make someone up
apply cosmetics to
My sisters made me up for my graduation party.
make up for
He tried to make up for being rude to me inviting me to a coffee.
move on
Continue, go on
Mary is trying to move on after her divorce.
pass away
His uncle passed away last night after a long illness.
put someone down
insult, make someone feel stupid
The students put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short.
put something off
We are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane.
put up with someone/something
I don't think I can put up with three small children in the car.
put something on
put clothing/accessories on your body
Don't forget to put on your new earrings for the party.
put out
extinguish (ex. a fire)

The firefighter couldn’t put out the fire.
run into someone/something
meet unexpectedly
I ran into an old school-friend at the mall.
run over someone/something
drive a vehicle over a person or thing
I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway.
run away
leave unexpectedly, escape
The child ran away from home and has been missing for three days.
run out of
have none left
We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap.
send something back
return (usually by mail)
My letter got sent back to me because I used the wrong stamp.
shop around
Compare prices
It is a good idea to shop around before buying a new car.
show off
act extra special for people watching (usually boastfully)
He always shows off on his skateboard
sleep over
stay somewhere for the night (informal)
You should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home.
splash out
spent too much
We splashed out last night and went to a fancy restaurant.
switch something off/on
Stop/start the energy flow, turn off/on
The light's too bright. Could you switch it off.
take after someone
resemble a family member
I take after my mother. We are both impatient.
Take off your shoes, your coat...

I always take off my shoes at home.
take off
start to fly
My plane takes off in five minutes.
think something over
I'll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision.
throw something away
dispose of
We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery.
turn something down
decrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc)
Please turn the TV down while the guests are here.
turn something down
I turned the job down because I don't want to move.
turn something off/on
stop/start the energy flow, switch off
Your mother wants you to turn the TV off and come for dinner.
turn something up
increase the volume or strength (heat, light etc)
Can you turn the music up? This is my favourite song.
turn up
appear suddenly
Our cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighbourhood.
turn out
become, end
I thought the party would be a real bore but it turned out great.
wake up
stop sleeping
We have to wake up early for work on Monday.
work out
be successful,
Our plan worked out fine.
work something out
make a calculation
We have to work out the total cost before we buy the house.

101.-brush up on: repasar
102.-carry on: seguir
103.-carry out: continuar
104.-charge with: acusar de

105.-check up on: controlar
106.-come down with: contraer, coger (enfermedad)
107.-get over: recuperarse
108.-kick in: surtir efecto
109.-look on: quedarse mirando
110.-pass out: desmayarse
111.-pull off: conseguir
112.-pull through: recuperarse, salir adelante
113.- show up: presentarse en un lugar, aparecer
114.-slow down: ir más despacio
115.-tick off: poner una marca a
116.-wipe out: acabar con, erradicar